A question frequently asked in the pursuit of high-CBD medicine or high CBD-strain development, is CBD more commonly found in Indica or Sativa? does not have as straightforward an answer as some would suggest. Research conducted at University of Indiana and the Canadian Institute of Agriculture shed light on the characteristics of strains most likely to contain CBD in the final product.
The ratio of cannabinoids in a plant, the amount of THC compared to the amount of CBD, is determined by the genetics of the plant. These traits are carried from one generation to the next when cloning. The total amount of cannabinoid present in the plant, for example THC + CBD + other cannabinoids, is determined by the interaction of the genetics of the plant and its growing environment and is impacted by factors such as light intensity, day length and nutrient availability.
The research at University of Indiana and the Canadian Institute of Agriculture shows that using the location where the strain was historically developd is the most reliable way to predict if a strain will have the ability to produce low, moderate or high amounts of CBD. There are also some correlations to whether the strain is Indica or Sativa.
There are 3 types of THC:CBD ratios you will find for a cannabis plant:
Type 1: High THC, Low or No CBD
Type 2: Equal amounts of THC and CBD
Type 3: Low THC, High CBD
These 3 types can be assigned to general regions where the strains developed with these characteristics:
Type 1: Found South of 30 degrees North latitude
Type 2 and 3: Found North of 30 degrees North Latitude
The two cannabis species, Sativa and Indica are also characterized by where they originated:
Sativa: Europe, Asia Minor, Central Asia
Indica: Southern and Eastern Asia
Within the Indica species there are plants of different appearance. There are Narrow Leaf and Wide Leaf varietals:
Ø Narrow Leaf Indica Varieties are Type 1 cannabinoid producers, meaning they can produce a very high amount of THC and little to no CBD.
Ø Wide Leaf Indica Varieties are Type 2 and Type 3 cannabinoid producers, meaning they can produce high amounts of CBD or equal amounts to the THC produced.
A reasonable explanation for this difference in cannabinoid ratio is that Narrow Leaf Indica plants which originate from the Indian sub-continent were historically consumed as a flower. By its nature a flower comes from a single plant. Wide Leaf Indica plants originate from Afghan and Pakistan where the majority of the plant was used to produce hashish, which contains the material from many plants combined together.
This tells us that when flowers are the primary form of the plant that is consumed, humans tend to select for THC potency or Type 1 plants and when hashish was more common the traits of individual plants are less apparent and breeding for THC potency was not as consistent and focused, thus the development of Type 2 and 3 plants.
The result of this human selection was that Type 1 plants have less genetic variation than Type 2 and Type 3 plants. Recall, Type 1 plants were very strongly bred for THC potency in the regions where they were grown and Type 2 and Type 3 plants were not inbred as much for specific traits and therefore the gene versions needed to produce CBD are still present.
When it comes to Sativa and cannabinoid characteristics, it can be said that, in general, Sativa plants are Type 2 and Type 3 plants with an overall lower cannabinoid content that Indica plants.
In summary, moderate to high-CBD producing plants can be found among both the Indica and Sativa species North of 30 degrees North latitude. Overall, there is a greater amount of genetic variety in the Sativa species and thus a greater frequency of the genetics required for the production of CBD. The genetics required for CBD production can also be found in Indica strains that originate above the 30 degrees North line of latitude.
If you are interested in learning more about how you can use THC and CBD testing through Pure Analytics to accelerate you CBD-strain development efforts please visit our website at www.pureanalytics.net/services or send us an email at email@example.com.
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